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Research Achievements

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Research Achievements

1. Crop Improvement
  1. Crop Improvement
Survey, collection, evaluation, characterization and documentation of temperate horticultural crops
The Western Himalaya is abundant source of diversity for temperate horticultural crops. The institute has made an effort for collection and conservation of germplasm from different regions and sources. The institute is maintaining a good repository of germplasm for evaluation, characterization and for future use. The details of the germplasm introduced and evaluated are presented below. After complete evaluation of different crops, elite genotypes/ varieties were identified for commercial production. 
Germplasm addition from 2015 to 2020 at ICAR-CITH, Srinagar
S.No.
Germplasm
Germplasm Status in 2014-15
2015-16
2016-17
2017-18
2018-19
2019-20
Present Status
1.


 
Fruits
1010
78
41
54
90
50
1323
Pome
321
40
11
26
35
12
445
Stone
162
32
16
8
10
18
246
Nuts
359
0
9
20
5
5
398
others
168
6
5
0
30
15
224
2.
Vegetables
988
62
9
8
0
8
1075
3.
Ornamentals
310
0
17
0
0
2
329
4.
Medicinal & Aromatic plants
25
0
0
8
0
0
33
Total
3343
218
108
124
170
110
4073

 

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Apples - SUPERCHIEF® Sandidge* :: Products :: Vivai Zanzi
C:\Users\Dr-OC Sharma\Desktop\circular 2019\data 2019 all crops\photos 2019\pear\Pear photos 2019\DSC_0445.JPG
Jeromine (Apple)
Super Chief (Apple)
Starkrimson (Pear)

 

Germplasm evaluated during different years in different crops at ICAR-CITH, Srinagar
S.No.
Germplasm
Evaluated
Elite genotypes identified
Name
1.
Apple
161
25
SCARLETT GALA. GALE GALA, OREGON SPUR, SUPER CHIEF, GALA MAST, RED DELICIOUS, RED CHIEF, RED FUJI, GOLDEN DELICIOUS, AMERICAN APIROUGE, WELL SPUR, MOLLIES DELICIOUS
2.
Pear
32
4
MAX RED BARTLETT. STARKRIMSON, KASHMIRI NAKH, ZH COPEACE 
3.
Quince
20
4
CITH-Q-01. CITH-Q-06. CITH-Q-07, CITH-Q-10
4.
Cherry 
32
6
CITH-C-4, CITH-C-7,CITH-15-A, LAPINS, DOUBLE
5.
Plum
22
7
RED PLUM, FRONTIER, SANTA ROSA, RED BEAUT, KANTO-5, AU-ROSA, GRAND DUKE
6.
Peach/Nectarine
40
5
FANTASIA, CREST HEAVEN, JULY ELBERTA, RED GLOBE, NIMLA
7.
Apricot
62
6
CITH-AP-1, CITH-AP-2, CITH-AP-3, TURKEY, COMMUNIS HOLY, HARCOT
8.
Almond
32
9
WARIS, SHALIMAR, MAKHDOOM, MERCED, PRANYAJ, NON-PAREIL, IXL, PRIMORSKIJ, CPS
9.
Walnut
270
30
CITH-W-1, CITH-W-2, CITH-W-3, CITH-W-4, CITH-W-5, CITH-W-6, CITH-W-7, CITH-W-8, CITH-W-9, CITH-W-10, HAMDAN, SULAIMAN
10.
Strawberry
102
12
KATRAINSWEET, ADDIE, KIMBERLEY, CHANDLER, JUTOGH SPECIAL, BRIGHTON, SHIMLA DELICIOUS, IC-319039, DIL PASAND, WINTERDON, KAMILA, 
11.
Olive
18
5
PICHOLINE, ITRANA, ZAITUNA, PENDOLINO, FRANTOIO
12.
Kiwi fruit
15
2
HAYWARD, MONTY
13
Kale
58
12
CITH-KC-07, CITH-KC-08, HW-5, CITH-KC-05, NW-SAG-36, CITH-KC-11, CITH-KC-SEL-1, CITH-KC-16, CITH-KC-26, CITH-KC-28
14
Tulip
22
5
JAMBO BEAUTY, HONEY MOON, LAPTOP, STRONG GOLD, CARTON
15
Lilium
7
5
PAVIA, BRUNELLO, BRINDSII, 
16
Alstroemeria
9
3
ROSITA, ALLADIN 
17
Chrysanthemum
27
3
PUNJAB ANURADHA, DAILY WHITE, AJAY, 


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Pear
Walnut
Almond
Hazelnut
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Pistachio nut
Cherry
Peach
Apricot
Plum 
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Kiwi Fruit
Plumcot
Chinese Ber
Prune (Stanley)
Olive
C:\Users\Dr-OC Sharma\Desktop\circular 2019\data 2019 all crops\photos 2019\loquat\Loquat\IMG-20190618-WA0005.jpg
C:\Users\Dr-OC Sharma\Desktop\circular 2019\data 2019 all crops\photos 2019\Persimon\Persimon\20191004_122121.jpg
C:\Users\Dr-OC Sharma\Desktop\circular 2019\data 2019 all crops\photos 2019\strawberry\IMG_20190509_115158.jpg
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C:\Users\Dr-OC Sharma\Desktop\circular 2019\data 2019 all crops\photos 2019\nectarine\IMG_20190611_160930.jpg
Loquat
Persimmon
Strawberry
Nectarine
Fruit crops collected, maintained, evaluated and recommended for crop diversification

 

Germplasm characterization
Germplasm characterization was done using minimal descriptor developed by NBPGR, DUS descriptor developed by ICAR-CITH, Srinagar & PPV&FRA, New Delhi, high throughput biochemical profiling and molecular characterization. Significant variability was observed among the genotypes which can be utilized for further crop improvement programmes. 
List of crops characterized by different 
Crop
Means of characterization
Number of genotypes
Apple
NBPGR Descriptor/Molecular characterization
120
Walnut
NBPGR Descriptor/Molecular characterization
120
Almond
Biochemical characterization 
34
Apricot
Molecular characterization
50
Strawberry
Biochemical/molecular characterization
120
Olive
Biochemical characterization 
18
Chilli
Biochemical characterization 
45
Kale 
Biochemical characterization 
50
Apple
DUS descriptor
50
Pear
DUS descriptor
21
Peach
DUS descriptor
31
Plum
DUS descriptor
24
Cherry
DUS descriptor
10
Apricot
DUS descriptor
17
Walnut
DUS descriptor
28
Almond
DUS descriptor
18
Strawberry
DUS descriptor
65
 
Development and characterization of apple hybrids 
  • Breeding programme for introgression of scab resistance in commercial cultivars of apple was initiated in 2009-10 and the hybrid population developed has been evaluated during 2015-2020. This programme was strengthened during 2015-2020 with the aim of developing large hybrid population from selected crosses. Main crossing was restricted for introgression of scab resistance and quality in apple cultivar Ambri from different sources. 
  • Eighty apple hybrids were evaluated for fruit quality traits and other bioactive compounds in addition to biological activities like anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging potential. Some of the hybrids showed superior performance over their parents with respect to some traits under analysis. Significant variability with respect to total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols and ant oxidative and free radical scavenging potential was observed. Anti-oxidative and free radical scavenging potential was elucidated through DPPH and FRAP assays and both the assays showed significant variability across the hybrids. Based on quality parameters, taste and appeal six superior hybrids were identified viz Prima x Ambri, Ambri x Mollies Delicious, Prima x Red Delicious and Ambri x Top Red. Two hybrids (Priam and Pride where scab resistance is donated by scab resistant apple cultivar Prima). Other two hybrids (Ammol and Ammrit) posses very good fruit quality and have profuse bearing. Institute Variety Release Preposal of these varieties has been submitted to the council and will be released during 2020. Multilocation demonstration of these hybrids has been taken up for their evaluation for release at National Level in coming future. 

C:\Users\Javaid\Desktop\photo\Ambri x Mollies Delicious\IMG_0737.JPG

C:\Users\HP\Desktop\variety release\Hybrids\Ambri x Top Red\20190924_123832.jpg

C:\Users\HP\Desktop\variety release\Hybrids\Ambri x vista Bella\IMG_9912.JPG

C:\Users\HP\Desktop\variety release\Hybrids\Prima X Red Delicious 2\IMG_1196.JPG
Ammol
(Ambri x Mollies Delicious)
Ammrit
(Ambri x Top Red)
Priame
(Prima x Ambri)
Pride
(Prima x Red Delicious)
Apple hybrids developed (Ready for Release)

 

  • Screening of apple hybrids for presence of scab resistant gene (s): Hybrids with parentage of either Prima or M. floribunda   were again screened for the presence of scab resistant gene (s) and it was found that three hybrids viz Prima x Red Delicious, Well spur × M. floribunda and American Apirogue × M. floribunda showed the presence of resistant gene Vf Rvi6. The resistant gene in these hybrids is contributed by their parents viz Prima and M. floribunda. Thus the stability of the gene over second year was ascertained. Out of three genes tested only VfRvi6-a gene was found present in these hybrids.
Development of hybrid population for scab resistance and fruit quality
During the period four crosses (Ambri x Prima, Ambri x Oregon Spur, Ambri x M. floribunda and Ambri x Redlane) were made to develop crossing population in large number. About 4000 to 5000 crosses were attempeted in each combination. The objective of this study is to transfer genes for scab resistance to Ambri from Prima, M. floribunda & Redlane and fruit quality (colour) traits from Oregon Spur and Redlane. The hybrid population has been raised and graftyed on M-9 rootstock for further evaluation in coming years. 
Mutation breeding in Ambri for variety development
Improvement of Ambri apple cultivar through mutation (gamma radiation) has been taken up with the objective for improvement of colour viz a viz other quality traits. About 4000 buds were irradiated for generating the mutant population. 

 

Breeding for nutrarich varieties/hybrids in root vegetable crop: 
To develop nutrarich varieties/hybrids in root vegetable crops, different carrot, radish and turnip accessions were evaluated for hybridization. The different crosses of Purple Globe, Purple Round, Pink Top White Globe, Pink Top White Round, Pink Top White Flat, Mustard Yellow, Pink Round, White Round, White Globe, White Flat, Pink Flat, Pink Globe, Golden Ball and Pusa Chandrima were made in turnip hybridization programme and simultaneously got different F2 programme of turnips whereas in radish, green, white, and pink types were crossed and got F1 hybrids of radish. The 15 carrot accessions and local temperate types were crossed for improvement of anthocyanin, lycopene and β-carotene content in temperate carrot. The different twenty two radish types were crossed for enhancement of anthocyanin pigments in F1 generations. 

 


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Screening of radish germplasm for anthocyanin colour
Anthocyanin expression F2-3 advanced generations of radish
Anthocyanin expression in different F1 generations of radish

 

Genetic diversity analysis nd molecular characterization of temperate fruits and nuts
  • Genetic diversity of apple, saffron and walnut has been done using SSR markers. Population studies reveal that significant variability exists within the germplasm. Association mapping studies has been initiated in walnut and apple. Special emphasis is being given for traits like bearing habit, biotic and biotic stress tolerance. Molecular characterization of 80 walnut genotypes and 90 apple genotypes done through SSR primers revealed significant variation which will be further confirmed through SNP genotyping and high through put re-sequencing (genotyping by sequencing) method so that complete molecular characterization with be done which can be utilized for association mapping studies. 
  • Gene expression studies for estimation of relative quantification of key genes during development of stigma in saffron revealed highest apocarotenoid biosynthesis potential during scarlet stage of stigma development and balloon stage of flowering opening and therefore balloon stage of flower openings recommended for harvesting of saffron.
  • Relative gene expression in apple during different stages of ripening was done to elucidate the role of flavanoid biosynthesis genes and it was found that highest level of phenol and flavanoid biosynthesis genes is just before ripening. Furthermore whole gene transcriptome of apple cultivars Ambri and Red Delicious at different stages of maturity and stiorage has been iniated. 
  • A total of 32 genotype of almond were screened for various flowering phenological stages. Flowering time is an important agronomic trait in almond since it is decisive to avoid the late frosts that affect production in early flowering cultivars. Based on nucleotide sequence of FLC gene from ten almond cultivars and 8 additional sequences retrieved from NCBI Gene Bank based on sequence similarity (>50%), UPMGA alignment and clustering was done in which a total of three main clusters were obtained. Grouping was observed on the based on flowering time. Furthermore comparative whole genome transcriptomics was also done between late flowering and early flowering genotypes to identify the key markers contributing towards early flowering in almond. 

 

Biochemical characterization and metabolome analysis in temperate fruits and nuts
  • Fatty acid profiling of almond and walnut varieties was done to identify the varieties with desirable PUFA, MUFA, SFA and Iodive values and their suitability for different uses.  Transcriptome and metabolome profiling of apple cultivar Ambri has been done and some key genes contributing towards higher shelf life and aroma have been found. The detailed high throughput transcriptome profiling in this regard has been taken up in collaboration with ICAR-CPRI, Shimla.     
  • Comparative biochemical profiling of apple cultivars was done to identify the superior cultivars with highest phenolic, flavanoid and other bioactive compounds. This biochemical study was correlated with molecular changes during the development of fruits. Phenolic acids which were quantitatively analyzed and determined include chlorogenic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, gallic acid,  p-coumaric acid, o-coumaric acid, 2,4-dihydroxy benzoic acid, gentisic acid, proto catechuic acid, t-cinnamic acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, benzoic acid, 3-hydroxy benzoic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Chlorogenic acid was the major component found in all the apple cultivars with highest value of 525 µg/g in Fuji followed by 454 µg/g in Coe Red Fuji and 436.0 µg/g in Mollies Delicious. Among flavanoids quercetin content was found higher in Fuji (900 µg/g), Coe-Red Fuji (810.0 µ/g) and Mollies Delicious (750.0µg/g). Maximum value of epicatechin was found in Cooper IV (881.58 µg/g) followed by Silver Spur (800.0 µg/g) and Oregon Spur (606.09 µ/g). Luteolin content was found highest in Silver Spur (588.12µg/g) followed by M. floribunda (436.33µg/g) and Red Spur (370.33µg/g). 
  • Biochemical evaluation of chilli germplasm for estimation of oleoresin content and pungency revealed that some chilli lines having very good pungency in addition to other traits like antioxidative and free radical scavenging potential. The entire phenolic composition of the chilli extract ranged from 4.31 mg/g GAE in genotype KA2 to 8.56 mg/g GAE in SEL1065-E. Highest pungency was observed in genotype CITHHP-92-13 with 64160 SHU and lowest pungency (16000 SHU) was observed in SEL1052-11. FRAP observations ranged from 87.41 µM Fe2+/g DW to 394.294 µM Fe2+/g DW. The highest FRAP value was shown by the genotype CITH-HP-92/13 which also showed highest percent inhibition (78.16%). Chilli gernotypes were identified and recommended for large scale multiplication based on colour and pungency values with better consumer acceptability and market demand. 

 

Micropropagation and regeneration in temperate crops 
  • Micropropagation protocols were standardized for mass multiplication in apple clonal rootstocks, cherry clonal rootstocks, strawberry, lilium and saffron. Micropropagation protocol for production of virus free clonal rootstocks in apple and cherry were standardized using meristem as explant. In saffron corm multiplication protocol was standardized using half ovary as an explants and the multiplication rate of 6x to 8x was attained within one year of culture. Although the size of microcorms developed under in-vtro conditions was small (<500 g) but on hardening with the use of paclobutrzol, colchicine and CCC the size of microcorm was improved. 
  • Stigma like structures and stigma has been produced under in-vitro conditions using ovary as explant with different phytohormone combinations on G-5 media. Stigma like structures having highest potential for apocarotenoid biosynthesis was observed on G-5 media supplemented with 27µM NAA & 44.4 µM BA. Direct stigma have apocarotenoids at par with natural stigma were obtained on G-5 media supplemented with 0.5 mgL-1 BAP, 0.1 mgL-1 NAA & 0.5 mgL-1  2,4-D using half ovary as an explant. This is the first report on development of apocarotenoid rich SLS with very high frequency of SLS development and development of direct stigma under in-vitro conditions with low frequency. HPLC analysis showed that SLS contains about 10mg/g crocin and 0.09mg/g of safranal content whereas direct stigma developed under in-vitro conditions contain about 30mg/g crocin and 0.12mg/g safranal. Real Time PCR analysis revealed that apocarotenoid biosynthetic gene expression throughout the development of SLS and stigma under in-vitro conditions. 

 

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In-vitro stigma development in saffron
In-vitro stigma like structure development in saffron
In-vitro saffron corm multiplication

 

  • Cell suspension cultures of apple (Malus domestica ‘Florina’) were established and treated with yeast-extract elicitor and its effect on the antioxidant properties and accumulation of bioactive phenolic metabolites. Upon elicitor treatment, the total phenolics and flavonoids were significantly enhanced, preceded by the enhancement of the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) enzyme. Cytotoxic effect of elicited cell culture extract was evaluated against human cervical (HeLa cells) and breast (MCF-7 cells) cancer cell lines using MTT assay. Elicited extract exhibited significant apoptosis mediated cell death in both breast (IC50: 31 µg/ml) and cervical (IC50: 38 µg/ ml) cancer cell lines.

 

Genotype CITH-C-54 for summer cultivation
  • Forty-four carrot genotypes including varieties and local check Chamman were evaluated for summer cultivation (last week of March – June) in Kashmir valley. Average root yield of genotypes obtained from 2 years (2014-15 and 2015-16) ranged from 16.17 t/ha to 33.92 t/ha and mean average root yield of the germplasm was 25.35 t/ha. Based on two years average performance CITH-C-54 with a root yield of 33.92 t/ha was identified as the best yielder in summer season. Thus, this genotype is recommended as suitable variety for summer cultivation in Kashmir valley
C:\Users\DR_Geetika\Pictures\work\photos\summer carrot (2015)\IMG_8746.JPG
CITH-C-54 at harvesting in June

 

Notification of garlic variety
  • A garlic variety CITH-G-3 developed by the institute was notified for release for hill zone-1 by variety release committee of AINRPOG, ICAR-DOGR, Rajgurunagar, Pune after three years varietal trials
C:\Users\Dr. Geetika\Documents\geetika\photos\AINRPOG 2015-16\IMG_2339 (2).jpg

 

Development of cabbage hybrid with multicolored head and enhanced nutrition
  • An F1 hybrid between red cabbage genotype CITH-RC-1 and cabbage Cv. Golden Acre was developed for enhanced attractiveness for salad and garnish purpose in addition to increasing nutritional and functional benefits. The hybrid was evaluated for agronomical and gastronomical features. A preliminary evaluation in year 2019-20 found the hybrid to be statistically at par with higher yielding parent Golden Acre for marketable head yield (55.98 t/ha vs. 50.34 t/ha), TSS (9.02 vs. 8.42) and was equally liked vis-à-vis Golden Acre as per Hedonic scale rating. Head polar diameter was, however, significantly higher than that of Golden Acre
F1 hybrid-CITH-RC-1 x Golden Acre






  1. Crop Production: 
Energy harvest through plant architectural engineering for increasing source and sink relationship in apple
  • In apple 3 cultivars (Coe Red Fuji, Granny Smith and Spartan on M-9 rootstock) with three training system (espalier, cordon and vertical axis) were compared to recommend best training system and cultivar for increasing source and sink relationship through plant arthitectural engineering.  Maximum photon flux density (237 µmolm-2s-1) was observed across the canopy of Spartan with minimum leaf area index (0.30) and among training systems maximum PPFD (221 µmolm-2s-1) was observed in espalier system with minimum LAI (0.21). All the cultivar showed maximum PPFD values under espalier system and gave better quality fruits as revealed by higher TSS and color quality parameters. Leaf area index was inversely proportional to PPFD values. In comparison of three training systems with three cultivars, the espalier system was found best for increasing the productivity in apple.In addition eight apple cultivars (Super Chief, Red Velox, Gala Redlum, Golden Delicious Reindeers, Golden Delicious Clone B, Red Jona Prince, Pinnova and Elstar) were evaluated under tall Spindle system. Gala Redlum showed best results witrh respect to yield (50 t/ha) and fruit quality followed by Super Chief. Tall Spindle Canopy management system also shows very good light interception and diffusion thus yield better quality fruits. 
DSC08030
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Coe red fuji3244
Apple HDP on MM-106 RS (Modified Centre Leader)
Apple HDP on M-9 RS
(Espalier system)
Apple HDP on M-9 RS
(Vertical Axis system)
Apple HDP on M-9 RS
(Tall Spindle system)
High Density in Apple (Different systems and rootstocks)
 
Effect of various training and pruning systems in Persian walnut: 
  • Institute conducted research programme in walnut to optimize its canopy and pruning. Among different training systems maximum nut efficiency was recorded in modified central leader system. Among different thinning levels 20% thinning, 20% heading back and 10+10% thinning + heading back regularly were found best from nut efficiency point of view.
Development of almond based saffron inter cropping system
  • In almond based saffron intercropping highest saffron yield was recorded in saffron planted under erect type varieties.  There was non-significant difference for most of the floral traits of saffron. Highest almond yield 9.50 q/ha was recorded in spreading type of varieties. Among all these systems maximum crocin (4.713 mg/100mg) was recorded highest in semi erect followed by sole (4.107) and spreading (3.753 mg/100mg) type of almond varieties respectively. Studies were also carried out to evaluate crocin content in saffron at different flower stages and among six stages, stage 3 recorded highest crocin content (4.64 mg/100mg) followed by stage 2 (4.2 mg/100mg), stage 5 (3.88 mg/100mg), stage 4 (3.86 mg/100mg) and stage 6 (3.67 mg/100mg) while lowest crocin content were recorded in stage 1(3.27 mg/100mg). This study is helpful to growers for harvesting the saffron even before to wait to flower open. Based on the above, the saffron + almond is best combination and there is less effect of various varieties having different growing habit on saffron, thus giving farmers additional return.
Enhancing feathering through plant growth regulators for high quality nursery production in apple: Comparision
  • For enhancing feathering through plant growth regulators for high quality nursery production in apple, various growth regulator combination were tried and it was found that all treatments of plant growth regulators increased number of feathers, feather length, branching zone and per cent feathered plants compared to control. To find out appropriate concentration, spray interval and spray frequency, factorial experiments were carried out separately on Gala Mast and Oregon Spur trees using three concentration of BA (500, 600 and 700 ppm), two spray interval (one week and two week) and three spray frequency). The findings revealed that Gala Mast produce satisfactory feathers (9.71) with the application of four spray of 600 ppm BA at one week interval compared with control. Whereas, Oregon Spur needed five sprays of 600 ppm BA at two week interval to produce satisfactory feathers (8).
Aquatic Dissipate/waste management through vermitechnology: 
  • In aquatic dissipate management, aquatic dissipate and worm ratio of 15:1 was found best proportion to get utmost benefit in terms of quality, quantity, worm counts and economic returns. The vermi compost prepared from aquatic dissipate was analyzed for 28 elements.
Divulging the adept mode of fertilizer application to optimize saffron yield
  • Different modes of fertilizer application were followed to fertilize saffron. Effect of these modes on saffron yield was revealed. Fertilizer application through different modes revealed that maximum yield was in treatment where fertilizer was applied through midrib placement upper to corms in two splits. The significant impact on corm multiplication was also noticed in the same treatment. Impact of various modes of nitrogen fertilization on carbon build up rate in saffron growing soils was studied and it was observed that maximum carbon build up rate per year was in soils where nitrogen was applied as mid rib placement upper to corms in two splits. This was a significant finding as carbon depletion can be reduced by this method of N application in saffron growing soils. Finally it can be concluded that midrib placement upper to corms in two splits is the best mode of fertilizer application in saffron growing soils to get utmost returns without polluting the environment
Fertigation: An efficient soil management stratagem for escalating nutrient and water use efficiency.
  • Effect of various fertigation treatments on fruit yield of apple was studied. Highest fruit yield of 28.78 kg tree-1 was noticed in fertigation treatment where 75% of the recommended fertilizer was applied in two splits followed by recommended fertilizer in two splits (27.85 kg tree-1). Fertilizer use efficiency as well as water use efficiency as influenced by various fertigation treatments was also studied. It was observed that 75% of the recommended fertilizer application through fertigation is the best way to fertilize apple crop to get maximum yield as well as FUE
Micronutrient management in horticultural crops for enhancement of yield, nutrient content and quality 
  • Micronutrient status of surface as well as sub-surface soils of apple growing areas of Kashmir was studied. It was revealed that soils were sufficient in copper and iron but were deficit in Manganese and Zinc. To know the soil and leaf nutrient status of apple growing areas of Kashmir were surveyed and deficit areas were identified
Management of pre harvest fruit drop in apple.
  • Influence of rootstock, variety, thinning, pollination and seed number on pre harvest fruit drop in apple was studied. The highest percentage of pre harvest fruit drop was recorded on M-9 rootstock and lowest on seedling in apple cultivars under study.   The rate of fruit drop was closely related to the seed number and seed weight of the fruit; where low seed number and less seed weight was associated with the largest amount of drop. The apple genotypes at a spacing of 4m x 4m (625 plants/ ha) on a seedling rootstock were evaluated for the preharvest fruit drop propensity under uniform management conditions. Based on pre harvest fruit drop the cultivars have been categorized into 10 groups. The group first represents the cultivars in which the drop percentage is from zero to 5% drop, likewise Group 10 represents the cultivars where the drop percent was 45% to 50%. These groups are arbitrary groups and will serve the purpose of information for the researchers who are working or going to work on this field.Thinning significantly influence the fruit quality parameters, maximum fruit quality was observed in 1 fruit/cluster. 
Grouping of apple germplasm based on propensity of pre harvest fruit (PFD) drop

 
Range (%)
Apple Varieties
I
0-5
Red Fuji, Coe-Red Fuji.
II
5-10
Ambri, Luxton' Fortune, Star Summer Gold, Skyline Supreme, Red Spur, , Jonica, Cooper-IV, Firdous, Oregon Spur, Braeburn Gala, Royal Delicious, Granny Smith, Well Spur, Starkrimson, silver spur,  Stark Cardinal, Red Velox,  Braeburn.
III
10-15
Pink Lady, Summer Queen, Michal, Tallisare, Starking Delicious, Fanny, Yellow Transparent, Ambrosia, Spartan, Starkrimson, Red Chief, Gala Mast, Golden Delicious, , Silver Spur, Red Delicious, Lal Ambri, Vance Delicious 
IV
15-20
Rich-A-Red, American Apirouge, King Luscious, Rome Beauty, Salva Probedetalian, Scarlet Gala, M. Robusta, Top Red, Mollies Delicious, Tydeman's Early Worcester.
V
20-25
Summer Red, Lemon Guard, Benoni, Akbar
VI
25-30
Maharaji, Belle-De-Bescope, Hardiman, Commerical-7, Winter Commercial, Early Shanburry, 
VII
30-35
Red Baron, Stark Earliest, CITH Apple SR(1), King Lucious, Amartara Pride, Shireen, Gold spur 
VIII
35-40
Prima, Tropical Beauty, Yellow Delicious, vista Bella
IX
40-45
Apple Queen, Welson, Green Sleeves, Karkitchoo, Brookfield.
X
45-50
Parkin's Beauty, Wealthy Apple,  June Eating,

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1Fruit/Cluster
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3Fruit/Cluster
Control

 

Evaluation of different substrates and systems for soilless strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) production in naturally ventilated greenhouse conditions. 
  • The effect of different substrates on soilless strawberry production was studied and different media constituents were tried and it was found that cultivar Douglas performed best in respect of growth, yield and quality by employing substrate coco peat + vermiculite (50:50), followed by the treatment coco peat: vermiculite: perlite (50:25:25) under protected conditions. The growth, quality, and production in terms of fruit/plant were higher and improved colour parameters were observed in strawberries grown in passively ventilated poly house condition in comparison to open field conditions.
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Enhancement in multiplication rate of clonal rootstocks of for production of quality planting material under protected conditions
  • Rootstock multiplication under controlled conditions was taken up to improve the multiplication rate and quality of rootstocks. The rootstocks were planted at an angle of 15° angle (Slanting) in a green house followed by other recommended practices to initiate the laterals in the month of March. Different soilless substrates were employed and the rootstocks behaved differently with different media combinations. Clonal rootstocks (MM- 106, MM-111, B-9, P-22 and M-27) including three sub clones of M-9 (T337, T339 and Pajam-1) of apple were evaluated for various root related traits. Improvement in root length, root diameter, roots fresh weight, root dry weight, duration of multiplication etc were observed under various treatments over control and with respect to field trails without controlled conditions. 

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Propagation of clonal rootstocks of apple by cuttings in greenhouse using soilless rooting medium
  • Enhancement of rootstock multiplication through raising cuttings of apple clonal rootstocks with augmentation of media and environmental conditions under controlled green house conditions. Improvement in plant height, plant diameter, number of adventitious roots per plant, root fresh weight, root dry weight etc was observed under these conditions in different treatments. This technology which shows the success percentage (94%) in some rootstocks can be instrumental in increasing the multiplication rate of rootstocks increasingly the availabilities of rootstocks and will reduce the cost of planting material.

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  • Air layering in apple rootstocks for vertical expansion of nursery under green house conditions was taken up with the aim to use vertical space and enhance rate of multiplication. Whilst multiplying the clonal rootstocks of apple in the polyhouse, some plants grow 6-8 ft in height. After these rootstocks are harvested only 6 -9 inches (15-25cm) is needed for grafting/budding operations rest 80- 90 % is cut off and just wasted. Keeping this, in view an experiment has been done to initiate rooting along the entire stem at different points based on the height and thickness of the shoot so that this portion of plant can be utilized in a most efficient way. First those plants having a diameter of (5-7mm) were selected and wounding / incision has been given and rooting hormones IBA (2500 ppm) was applied in the form of lanolin paste to the wounded portion. Small bags filled with rooting medium has been fastened at those points were rootings needs to be initiated. Light weight substrate having high water holding capacity was used (Cocopeat). This technology will be very useful in promoting the vertical expansion of the nursery in the greenhouse conditions and number of plants per unit area can be increased many fold. 

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Saffron corm multiplication and flower enhancement under forced conditions
  • Saffron corm multiplication under controlled conditions was taken up with the aim to indentify the edaphic and environmental factors influencing the corm multiplication. Annual copr multiplication of 5x was attained using media combination comprising of Cocopeat+Vermiculite+Soil (1:1:1) supplemented with colchicines (0.5%) + GA3 (100ppm) + NAA (200ppm) + CCC (500ppm) and vermiculite + soil (3:1) supplemented with GA3 (150ppm) + NAA (150ppm) + CCC (400ppm) as compared to control, with least number of corms (3x). Hence the growth regulators when applied exogenously to saffron can enhance the corm multiplication rate, if used in proper concentration and combination along with different media. 
  • An investigation was undertaken to find out the effect of plant growth regulators on enhancement of flowering in saffron under green house conditions and it was found that use of  colchicines (0.5%), GA3 (150ppm), NAA (150ppm), CCC (500ppm) on growth media comprising of cocopeat, vermiculite and  Soil (1:1:1). Hence growth regulators can be used for enhancing the flowering in saffron which finally enhances the economic part for better returns and economic benefits under controlled conditions. These findings pave the way for production of saffron under controlled conditions and thus rule out the importance of particular geographic area or/and soil/edaphic factors for saffron production. 
Standardization of integrated nutrient management of vegetables as intercrop in apple orchard.
  • Intercropping in apple was taken up to stuct its role in improvement in yield and quality of apple and vegetable crops. Apple quality was found best with pea and cauliflower as an intercrop supplemented with FYM + vermicompost + biofertilizer + inorganics Moreover fruit quality and yield of apple and growth parameters of pea and cauliflower. 
Standardization of growing/nutrients media for cost effective production of quality vegetables seedlings under protected conditions
  • For raising, the cost effective vegetable seedlings (tomato, capsicum and cucumber) different growing nutrient media were tried under polyhouse conditions at Uttarakhand. In this experiment, fourteen media were tried for production of seedlings. In tomato, based on B: C ratio criterion, a seed sown in soil media proved best giving maximum of 3.82 B:C ratio. The inclusion of vermi compost in growing media tends to decrease returns B:C ratio and consequently vermi compost alone as media gave the minimum benefit.  In capsicum, highest B:C ratio of 3.18 in FYM media was followed by soil (3.09) while least of 1.29 with VC. In cucumber, FYM was found best media with a B:C ratio of 3.09. Under polyhouse conditions, for growing broccoli seedlings was most beneficial giving a B:C ratio of 4.30 in FYM media.  In Chinese cabbage,soil media was found best with B:C ratio of 2.20. In lettuce, FYM media proved best for lettuce seedling production under poly house conditions which gave 2.72 B: C ratio. Conclusively, soil, farm yard manure and locally available resources of forest litter singly or and a judicious combination thereof, may be useful as seeding media for obtaining seedlings successfully and profitably. However, due consideration to seed size, nature/ease of germination (germ inability) and after care of crop along with component costs involved need to be given for better results.   
 Round the year cultivation of kale under Kashmir valley conditions
Offseason sowings and transplanting of 27 promising genotypes were attempted for two consecutive years (2017-18 and 2018-19) to achieve year round availability of kale under Kashmir valley conditions. It was observed that sowing of kale in months beyond July were uneconomical in open conditions. Under polyhouse conditions, although seedling emergence was improved significantly when sowing was attempted in August, September and October, the transplanted seedlings could not survive or perform economically outside. Sowing of selected genotypes with apparent winter hardiness was attempted in polyhouse with extra protection by using second layer of polythene under the polyhouse in January, 2020. There was proper emergence and production of healthy seedlings. However, on transplanting in March, the genotypes bolted immediately after achieving a short vegetative phase. Therefore, proper transplanting time was restricted to May to August months preceded by March, April, May, June and July sowings only. NW-Saag-1 performed most consistently and better than other genotypes including local checks Khanyari and GM Dari. NW-Saag-1 yielded 36.66 t/ha in July 2017 transplanting, 23.75 t/ha in May, 2018 transplanting and 13.35 t/ha in July, 2018 transplanting. In conclusion, this genotype is novel candidate for offseason kale cultivation (transplanting from May to July) in Kashmir valley that can perform better than its conventional counterparts Khanyari and GM Dari
Integrated nutrient management (INM) of tomato and cucumber under polyhouse conditions of Kashmir valley for environmental and human health sustenance
To promote environmental and human health sustenance while cultivating high value crops cucumber and tomato, various integrated nutrient treatments were evaluated for yield against standard practice of chemical fertilizer application in polyhouse cultivation in Kashmir valley. After two years of integrated fertilizer application in the form of different treatments (10 t/ha FYM, 4 t/ha Vermicompost, 50% RDF + 50% FYM +Biofertilizer, and 50% RDF + 50% Vermicompost + Biofertilizer), there were no significant differences in total fruit yields (61.24 – 67.34 t/ha) from the yield obtained with purely chemical RDF (58.72 t/ha) in tomato under polyhouse conditions. Similarly, in cucumber, there were no significant differences in total fruit yields (84.58 – 91.53 t/ha) from yield obtained with purely chemical RDF (89.33 t/ha). Further, 100% organic as well as 50% organic fertilizer application gave statistically equal yields in both the crops. Thus, the technology can be used by vegetable grower’s conscious of environmental and human health sustenance
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INM of tomato under polyhouse cultivation
INM of cucumber under polyhouse cultivation

 

Crop diversification technology for round the year vegetable crops under protected conditions in mid and high hills of Uttarakhand
  • For getting round the year supply of vegetables under polyhouse conditions tomato, capsicum, spinach, fenugreek, coriander, onion and broccoli were tried in Uttarakhand. These crops were grown under polyhouse conditions in high hills (Mukteshwar) and mid hills (Pokhrad) of Nainital district of Uttarakhand state. As viewed from the angle of net returns and B:C ratio, capsicum provided profit of Rs. 31735.00 (9.20) whereas the next was lettuce with Rs. 10905.00 (3.70). Other crops in succeeding crops were Chinese cabbage giving a net return of Rs. 7978.50 (2.62), cucumber Rs. 5778.10 (2.20), tomato Rs. 4478.10 (1.36) and broccoli gave least profit of Rs. 568.40 only with a B:C ratio of 0.17. Under mid hills situation the profit and B:C ratio was comparatively of smaller magnitude. Capsicum crop giving a profit of Rs. 12105.50 with B:C ratio of 3.51 was on the top and broccoli with Rs. 404.60 (mere 0.12) was poorest earner and cucumber gave Rs. 389.20 only but with a slightly higher B:C ratio of 0.15 than that of broccolli. Lettuce gave a net return of Rs. 9231.00 (3.13) stood second, tomato (Rs. 6112.00, 1.85) as third and Chinese Cabbage (Rs. 3931.00, 1.29) fourth. Thus, a polyhouse grower can rely upon capsicum for best earning under both situations whereas lettuce may be second and Chinese cabbage as next choice from B:C ratio point of view. The case with tomato and cucumber is different. Tomato can earn more (Rs. 6112.00) in mid hills whereas only Rs. 4478.00 in high hills whereas cucumber is quite different earning more (Rs. 5778.10) in high hills contrary to Rs. 389.20 only in mid hills. Broccolli was last and discouraging option
Enhancing alstroemeria production involving different growing conditions
  • In evaluation of nine cultivars of Alstroemeria, cultivar Rosita was found best under poly house condition while cultivar Alladin and Pluto perform better under open conditions. The poly house conditions were found best for high flower yield and continuous supply of flowers from April to December. The planting of Alstroemeria on raised bed at 45x60 cm gave better growth and yield. In comparison of different media for rhizome production, soil+sand+FYM gave better results. The thinning of shoots upto 15% was found best for plant growth without reducing yield. 

 

Pruducts/technologies developed:
  1. An online expert system to counter climate change impact on apple and walnut (agrisci.tk) has been developed for:
  • Land Use Planning
  • Contingency Planning
  • Yield forecasting
  • Anticipating time of arrival (Advance/delay) of phenological stages and its impact on yield
  • Suggesting management for minimising Yield losses

 

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Description automatically generated

Land Use and Contingency Planner (LCP)
  1. Nutrient deficiency diagnoser and manager for apple (NDDMA)- A user friendly app. (Technology Code: CITH/NRM/17/TECH-2)
A user friendly mobile app (in 03 languages) for curing nutrient deficiency in apple

 

  1. Despersible Vermi-pellet (DVP) preperation from aquatic waste/weeds/macrophytes (Technology Code: CITH/NRM/17/TECH-1)
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Enriched and dispersible vermi-pellets prepared from aquatic weeds

 

  1. Crop Protection

 

Development of Spray Schedule against Major Canker and Foliar Diseases of Apple in Uttarakhand
  • The effect of different weather parameters on development of major canker, foliar and fruit diseases of apple was studied and a definite relationship was observed between major diseases of apple and the prevailing temperature, relative humidity and rainfall pattern. Major canker and foliar diseases of apple progressed rapidly during the month of July where, monthly average minimum temperature of 15oC, maximum temperature of 20.6oC, relative humidity of 93% and rainfall of 280.80mm was recorded. Correlation studies revealed a positive correlation between severity of major cankers and foliar diseases of apple and abiotic factors viz., average minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Relative humidity showed significant effect on the severity of major canker and foliar diseases of apple.  Weather parameters are strongly influenced the disease occurrence on apple crop in Nainital district of Uttarakhand. In a study of major canker and foliar diseases of apple, it was found that weather parameters strongly influenced the diseases occurrence in apple crop in Nainital district of Uttarakhand. 
Incidence and intensity of alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria mali) of apple at various districts: 
  • The survey was conducted in nine districts of Kashmir and 5 locations were selected from each district. Highest disease incidence (46.23%) and intensity (19.51%) were recorded in district Kulgam followed by district Budgam with 32.78 & 12.28 % incidence and intensity respectively. Lowest disease incidence and intensity (10.38 & 4.04%) were recorded in district Srinagar. The isolates were characterized which revealed significant variation. The hyphae were light brown to brown, septate, straight, branched, and their average width ranged from 7.20 µm (Delicious at Potkha, Baramulla) to 8.89 µm (Golden Delicious at Badoora, Anantnag). The highest (39.31 µm) and the lowest (19.87 µm) inter septal distance was recorded in (Gala Mast at Zanipora, Shopian) and (Delicious at Potkha, Baramulla), respectively. Managament strategy for control of alternaria leaf spot has been standardized and recommended for farmers. 
Management of Major Soil Born Diseases of Apple
  • Malus baccata var. himalaica (Paron) screened out as resistant against Dematophora necatrix causing white root rot of apple.During the period under report, mortality of apple plants progressed rapidly during the month of July where, monthly average soil temperature of 19.50oC, and soil moisture of 2.38 g/kg soil was recorded. It was concluded that edaphic factors strongly influenced the occurrence of white root rot in apple crop. Soil moisture showed strong relationship (r=0.416) with white root rot of apple as compared to soil temperature (r=0.332). Besides the mentioned two edaphic factors other parameters of diseases development like pathogen virulence, host susceptibility etc are also playing vital role in causing mortality of apple plants. In soil born diseases of apple, wild apple locally called as paron was found resistance to white root rot. The edaphic factors strongly influenced the occurrence of white root rot and soil moisture showed positive relationship with white root rot.
Characterization of pathogen(s) associated with apple canker disease and evaluation of botanicals against most prevalent canker in Kashmir valley
  • Under characterization of pathogens associated with apple canker disease and evaluation of botanicals against most prevalent canker in Kashmir valley, 20 isolates representing north, centre and south Kashmir were characterized at morpho-molecular level. The cultural characteristics revealed that the colonies were fluffy, irregular margin having dark centre and reached 20-30 mm after 7 days on PDA at 25ºC. Based on morphological characters, three morphological groups were formed and the fungus was identified as Diplodia. To confirm the identity of genus and species at the molecular level, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified in ten isolates from all the three groups. The sequence data showed three species having 97%, 99%, 99% sequence homology with Diplodia mutila, Diplodia bulgarica and Diplodia seriata respectively. Seventeen botanicals of medicinal value were collected and evaluated (in vitro) using poisoned food technique at two different concentrations 1000ppm (C1) and 2000ppm against, Diplodia bulgarica. Better inhibition of Diplodia bulgarica under in-vitro conditions was attained by some plant extracts which will be further evaluated on large scale for confirming their effect. 
Diagnosis and prognosis of apple viral diseases – Spatial and temporal variation in virus infection in apple
  • In diagnosis and prognosis of apple viruses periodic diagnosis and prognosis of four apple viruses in different plant tissues was done during different plant growth stages and seasons. It was observed that all four viruses showed seasonal variation with respect to infectivity in different tested tissues. Immunodiagnostic assay using DAS-ELISA confirmed the presence ofApMV, ACLSV, ASGV and ASPV in all plant parts, except root and fruit. The DAS-ELISA values indicated virus titer was more in leaves, bark and whole flower compared to other parts of apple tree. Results obtained through DAS-ELISA were validated through RT-PCR. Seasonal and spatial changes in virus titre were evaluated through semi-quantitative analysis by RT-PCR and qualtitative estimation by Real Time PCR. Highest titre of ApMV and ACLSV were observed in leaf samples during spring season. Whole virome analysis of apple revealed the occurrence of new viroids with varied degree of infection and influence on yield and quality of fruit. Their characterization and impact on apple crop has been undertaken. Immuno-molecular diagnosis by multiplexing and optimizing growth stage and tissue has been developed for proper diagnosis and prognosis of apple viruses. 
Study of bio-ecology and management of aphid and mite pests in temperate fruits
  • The six districts of J&K were surveyed for sucking pest. The European red mite was found as major sucking pest in apple (14.28%) and almond (12.5%). In walnut severe damage was inflicted by Chromaphis juglandicola (22.64%) while in pear, pear psyllid was observed to be most serious pest (23.33%). For the borers, 8 districts were surveyed and 1508 specimens were collected, out of which 532 belongs to order Coleoptera, 43 under Lepidoptera and 59 under Hymenoptera. Infestations of flat headed borer was high (61.12%) in cherry at Ganderbal. Maximum infestation of shot hole borer (66.50%) was recorded in Shopian. About 84.81 and 64.22% infestation of codling moth was recorded on apple and apricot in Ladakh region.
Sucking pests of temperate fruit crops in Jammu and Kashmir
  • Survey, collection and documentation of sucking pest complex have been carried out in different orchards in six districts of Jammu and Kashmir. The major pest species of temperate fruit crops observed for their incidence and severity include; Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, Eriosoma lanigerum, Panonychus ulmi, Tetranychus urticae, Cacopsylla pyri and Eriophyes erineus. Preliminary analysis reveal that in apple (14.28%) and almond (12.5%),  Panonychus ulmi was the most severe sucking pest species followed by Quadraspidiotus perniciosus in apple (12.28%) and Tetranychus urticae in almond (9.25%). In case of Walnut most severe damage is inflicted by Chromaphis juglandicola (22.64%) followed by Eriophyes erineus (13.23%). Pear psyllid, Cacopsylla pyri was observed the most serious pest of the pear (23.33%). Field identification guide for major sucking pests of temperate horticultural crops was also prepared. Biology of pear psyllid Caopsylla pyri on pear, two spotted mite Tetranychus urticae on almond and coccinellid predator Adalia tetraspilota on Aphis pomi were studied. For screening and evaluation of effective and safe pesticides, trials were carried out to screen the effective and safe chemicals (botanicals+ dehydrating agents+ oils) against peach stem aphid, Pterochloroides persicae and walnut aphid, Chromaphis juglandicola at various concentrations. In case of Chromaphis juglandicola 14 combinations were tried, among which NSKE (7.5ml) + Rosemary (0.1 ml) + Soyabean oil (10 ml) with soap solution (10ml) /litre of water was found most effective. Among the 15 chemical combinations evaluated against Pterochloroides persicae, combination of rosemary oil (0.03 ml) + lavender oil (0.03 ml) + soyabean oil + soap (10ml) /litre of water proved most efficient. The overwinter stages of sucking pests of temperate horticultual crops were also surveyed and documated.
Borers of temperate fruits in Jammu and Kashmir 
  • Survey and collection were carried out from 133 localities falling in eight districts namely Srinagar, Ganderbal, Baramulla, Shopian, Pulwama, Budgam, Kargil and Leh during 2015. Total 1508 specimens were collected and out of these 532 specimens belong to the order Coleoptera, 43 specimens under Lepidoptera and 59 under Hymenoptera. For identification, borer specimens and their natural enemies were sent to NBAII and other institutions. Preliminary data reveals that, infestation of flat headed borer (FHB) was severe in cherry at Ganderbal (61.12%). In case of shot hole borer (SHB), 66.50% infestation was observed in district Shopian. However in Ladakh region, codling moth (Cydia pomonella) exhibiting a total of 84.81% and 64.22% fruit damage in apple and apricot, respectively.  Different monitoring techniques viz., light traps, ethanol and methanol trap, log wood traps were utilized for the collection and monitoring of different types of borers. Management strategies viz., sealer-cum-healer (organic and inorganic), and chemical pesticides include drenching with Chloropyriphos (3ml/L) + Carbendazim (1g/L) and drenching with Imidachlorpid (1ml/L) + Carbendazim (1g/L) were carried out in cherry and almond after fruit harvest during last year. 

 

  1. Post Harvest Management: 

 

Studies on dried prunes in relation to cultivars and drying technology
  • Three cultivars i.e. Grand Duke, President Plum and Italian Plum (pitted material) were taken for drying for prune purpose. Two drying modes were taken for investigation i.e. Osmo dehydration  followed by dehydration in cabinet dryer at 60° C and direct cabinet drying at 60° C. Two drying modes along with 3 cultivars were used for dehydration of plum into prune. The Italian Plum took less time for dehydration and retained colour, ascorbic acid and carotenoids to maximum with high rehydration ratio. 
Standardization of technology for blending of temperate stone fruit juices
  • Three blending ratio i.e., 25% sweet cherry+ 75 % sour cherry, 50% sweet cherry + 50 % sour cherry, 75 % sweet cherry + 25 % sour cherry with 100% each of sweet and sour cherry with and without treatment of 0.1% Sodium benzoate and stored at 4±2° C were taken for investigation. After six months of storage study it was found that Blend of 50% Sweet cherry + 50 % sour cherry treated with sodium benzoate retained desirable colour i.e. brightness, redness and freshness to maximum when compared with other blending combinations. This blend was also found superior in retaining ascorbic acid, desirable blend of acidity and TSS.  Organoleptic evaluation further confirms the results
Assessment of Kashmir chili for commercial traits
  • A total of thirty chilli genotypes were evaluated for phenolic compounds. The total phenolic content varies from 7.67 GAE mg/g of dried sample in genotype SH-SP-1154-4-4 to 55 GAE mg/g in genotype SEL-1005/11-1. Ferric reducing power was found highest (13.93 µM of ferrous equivalent Fe (II) per gram sample) in genotype SEL-1005/11-1 and lowest (3.45) in genotype SH-HP-111-5. Twelve chilli genotypes were evaluated for capsacin content. Maximum capsaicin concentration (634 ppm) was found in chilli genotype SEL-1052-12015 followed by CITH-HP-82/13 (583 ppm) and SH-HP-1154-1-03 (542 ppm). The study identified and recommended superior chili genotypes with better colour and pungency values for large scale commercialization. 
Preparation and evaluation of fruit wine from different cultivars of pear grown in Uttarakhand. 
  • Three cultivars of pear viz. Jagner, Sand pear and Kakria were used for wine preparation wine preparation studies. The prepared pear ginger wines of different treatments were evaluated for sensory quality attributes at different intervals of storage and it was found that the pear ginger wine from sand pear having TSS of 22oB with 2.5% ginger had an edge over other treatments immediately after preparation and after 6 months storage. The products were found safe at ambient conditions after 6 months storage. From the cost of production of the prepared products it was found that it is quite reasonable (Rs. 70.40/650 ml bottle) with good profit margin comparable with low alcoholic beverages available in the market. The cost may further be reduced if the production is on commercial scale by any processing unit in the production areas.
Optimization of harvesting time, storage for saffron and production of VAP 
  • In order to harvest better quality saffron optimum stage of flower development is to be selected. It was found that balloon stage of saffron flower possesses maximum apocarotenoid content and hence the stage was recommended for harvesting. The storage conditions retaining maximum content of apocareoptenoids for longer time were standardized and recommended. Drying by cabionet dryer at 80oC retains maximum quality parameters in saffron in camparison to other techniques. Production of value added products from saffron like saffron tablets and saffron juice (concentrator) has been taken up in collaboration with SKUAST-K, Shalimar
Determination of maturity indices in olive
  • In olive various parameters such as fruit moisture content, fruit skin color, fruit firmness, oil content, oil quality in terms of fatty acid were recorded to determine the maturity indices for getting maximum oil yield from the fruits. The noted parameters were used to calculate maturity index and the preliminary results showed that last week of October month is optimum time for the genotypes viz., Frontoio, Cerignola, Etnea, Itrana and Belice whereas, second week of November month was found best for genotypes viz., Tonda Ibea, Zaituna, Cornicobra and Ottobratica. High throughput fatty acid analysis, flavanoid profiling, phenol/phenolic acid profiling in olive cultivars in underway and the results will provide the detailed overview of low molecular weight phenolic compounds/flavanoids which are major indicators of fruit quality and maturity. The maturity indices  will be further standardized after completing this study.








Processing technologies developed and commercialized (Licensed) 
Products
Product description
Photograph
Apricot and plum Fruit Bar
It has excellent texture, color, aroma, taste, chewing quality, no sticking character and has acceptable microbial load, least browning and spoilage which can be stored up to 9 months without loss in quality, nutrition and appeal. By this technology post harvest losses can be minimized up to 75% by converting in to products
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Apricot fruit bar
Plum fruit bar
Quince candy
Quince candy showed retention of TSS, pH, reducing, total and non-reducing sugars during storage at ambient conditions. The prepared products are acceptable in terms of colour, taste, consistency/texture even up to storage interval of 9 months at ambient conditions.

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Quince candy
Cape gooseberry Jam
Product has appealing colour, shine, texture, flavour, taste, aroma and has very good acceptable physical & chemical characters with excellent mouth refreshing ability. Product is rich in vitamin C (18 mg/ 100 g) and carotenoids (300 µg/100 g) ,TSS (48-50° B) and moisture content 14-18 percent.

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Osmo dehydrated Rose Hip
It is excellent in taste, flavour, texture and colour and has very good physical and chemical characteristics with excellent mouth refreshing ability. The product has moisture content (14-18%), TSS (55-60oB), vitamin C (75mg/100), acidity (1.42%), carotenoids (600IU) and can be stored for 9 months in cold and dark place without losing quality.

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Rosehips and its osmo dehydrated products





  1. Externally Funded Projects: 
DUS Centre for temperate fruits and nuts
  • Institute has developedDUS guidelines for nine crops (apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, cherry, walnut, almond and strawberry) and is being identified as DUS centre for temperate fruits and nuts by PPV&FRA, New Delhi. During the period reference varieties of apple, pear, peach, plum, walnut, almond, apricot, cherry and strawberry were chacterized as per the DUS descriptor and their data has been submitted to PPV&FRA for preparation of data base repository of temperate fruits and nuts.
  • On-site DUS testing was done for farmer’s varieties and new varieties applied during 2015-2020. Farmers varieties of apricot, peach, walnut, pear, cherry and apple were tested by on-site testing at different locations in Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh and their description as per the DUS descriptor was noted and send to PPV&FRA for further processing of protection. Five new walnut varieties submitted by the Institute were evaluated in 20-17-18 & 2018-19 for DUS characters, agronomic and commercial traits for their registration through PPV&FRA, New Delhi. Inspection visits were made by PPV&FRA for inspecting five walnut candidate varieties under testing at ICAR-CITH, Srinagar. 
  • Four walnut varieties (CITH-W-1, CITH-W-2, CITH-W-3 & CITH-W-4) were proptected under PPV&FRA through Sui Generis system. 
  • Field gene bank comprising of 250 apple varieties was established during 2018-2020 which will act as a reference variety block for apple in future. 
Development of an Electronic Nose Sensor to Determine the Optimum Harvesting Time for Apple and Papaya
  • Complete volatile organic compound (VOC) profiling and quality evaluation of four apple varieties was done during different stages of fruit development and storage. It was found that there is incremental enhancement of VOC during fruit development stages and ripening which further gets delayed during storage. 
  • First time we have developed a low cost portable non-invasive SMART sensor which can predict ripening stage and post-harvest shelf life of apple. Potentially this SMART sensor could be deployed at apple farms to monitor fruit maturity prior and thereby assisting in determining the optimum ripening stage for harvesting and fruit quality.  

 

National Agriculture Innovation Fund/ Intellectual Property Management and Transfer/Commercialization of Agriculture Technology
  • During 2015-20 about 114 IC numbers were allotted from NBPGR, New Delhi after submissting passport data. Technology inventory was compiled and published. Technologies and varieties developed by the Institute were documented. Passport data for new collections was prepared and send to NBPGR for allotment of IC numbers and IC numbers were allotted. Compilation of technology inventory and germplasm inventory is being done for documentation of all the available germplasm and technologies developed by the Institute. MoUs were signed with Directorate of Horticulture Kashmir for establishment of mother orchards of CITH walnut varieties, BASF for evaluating phytotoxicity of BASF 75101F and PPV&FRA for conducting DUS testing of temperate horticultural crops, UFRMP for promotion of walnut in Uttarakhand, Academic Universities for conduct of research activities of students at CITH, Srinagar. During 2019-20 four walnut varieties (CITH-W-1, CITH-W-2, CITH-W-3 & CITH-W-4) got protection under Sui Generis system by PPV&FRA, New Delhi. 
Walnut propagation for production of quality planting material
  • Total, 20000 grafted plants of walnut were supplied to UFRMP-JICA, Dehradun for promotion of walnut in Uttarakhand. Study visits of 2 and 3 days duration were organized at ICAR-CITH, Srinagar for officers from URFMP- JICA in which different officers participated. Training/ demonstration programmes were organized in Uttarakhand for enlighteneing farmers and development department officials about techniques for walnut multiplication. 
  • Eight polyhouses (five at Mukteshwar and three at Srinagar) were constructed under this project for facilitating planting material production on large scale. 

 

 Challenge Programme on Canopy Management and Plant Architectural Engineering in Temperate Fruits
  •  Canopy management and plant architectural engineering in temperate fruit crops was started to develop efficient plant architectural systems using different rootstocks and scion cultivars to harvest solar energy through increased light interception and improve sink source relationship, to utilize maximum vertical space & energy and to maximize production and improve color and quality of produce. Project was implemented in 8 centres initially (2015-18) & seven centres during 2018-19 & 2019-20 with different temperate fruit crops of their regional importance. 
All India Network Project on Outreach of Technologies on Temperate Fruit Crops
  • This project aims for testing and dissemination of new varieties and technologies in different agro-climatic conditions of North Western Himalayas through outreach programme. At Srinagar centre where mostly the planting has been done at farmers fields for early adoption of technologies. The performance of varieties was excellent especially in apricot, almond and apple. Project was implemented in 8 centres initially (2015-18) & seven centres during 2018-19 & 2019-20 with different technologies.
NMSHE-TF-6 (Task Force on Himalayan Agriculture-National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem)
  • To understand variability and trend historical weather data has collected and analyzed. Chill hours and chilling units were also calculated. Preliminary survey was done in Kashmir valley and Leh and more than 40 genotypes of walnut, almond and apple collected. One bunch bearer genotype of walnut has been identified from Budgam district of Kashmir valley. Model plantations of temperate fruit crops (apple, apricot, walnut and almond), has been established at different locations (2 in Leh and 1 in Kashmir valley). Imparted 6 trainings on different aspect of temperate fruit production in 11 villages of Jammu and Kashmir. A total 240 numbers of farmers participated in the trainings.
National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA)
  • Collected and analyzed historical weather data to understand the variability as well as trend of various weather parameters during the last three decades. Phenological studies are going on from 2015 in 5 apple and 2 walnut cultivars to find out effect of climatic variability on different phenological events in apple and walnut. Evaluation of the apple and walnut cultivars are going to from 2015 to find out the effect of climatic variable on the yield related trait. Development of land Use Planner for apposite land use planning of the apple and walnut under changing climatic scenarios is under process.

 

National Saffron Mission
  • Protocols were standardized for in-vitro saffron corm production and multiplication viz a viz stigma like structure development. Molecular charactyerization of saffron clones was done to identify variation between the clones but there was no variation observed among the clonal selections however the variability was observed in apocaratenoid content and biosynthetic potential. Comparative apocarotenoid gene expression through Real Time PCR analysis revealed a significant variation in Zeaxanthin cleavage dioxygenase (CsZCD) and lycopene-β-cyclase (CsLYC) genes between the most divergent selections (CITH-S-107 and PAM-S-116) indicating a possible role of these genes for regulating the apocarotenoid production in stigma. 
  • Technologies for intensive saffron cultivation, optimization of harvesting time and process of drying and storage for maximum retension of apocarotenoids were developed under this project.
CRP on Agrobiodiversity
  • Under this project Institute developed minimal descriptor for temperate horticultural crops in collaboration with IIHR, Bangalore and NBPGR, New Delhi. Descriptor based characterization of 120 walnut and 120 apple genotypes was done for two consequetive years followed by characterization of apricot, peach and plum. Detailed description of apple and walnut varieties/genotypes was submitted to NBPGR, New Delhi for records under online germplasm portal. 
CRP on Fungal Foliar Diseases
  • Etiological studies of apple scab, alternaria and marsonina were done and different isolates of etiological agents were collected and characterized at morphological, pathological and molecular level. The variability observed among the isolates was further validated through host pathogen interaction studies. Managament practices were developed for scab and alternaria through in-vitro plate assays and field tests. 

 

  1.  Production and supply of planting material:
     Production of quality planting material is one of the main activity of the Institute under which focus is given on multiplication of identified elite varieties. The quality of planting material is ensured by proper fidelity testing and virus inedexing. Seperate mother blocks have been kept for elite identified varieties. The institute has produced and supplied 1.72 lakhs of bud sticks, 2.32 lakhs of grafted/budded plants of temperate fruit trees and nuts; 69000 of strawberry runners; 22.38 quintals of TLS, and 72000 of seedlings of improved vegetable varieties during the period under review.  

 

  1.  Transfer of Technology:
          The following technologies are being commercialized for increasing productivity of temperate horticultural crops in the entire temperate region of the country.
  • Better quality and high yielding varieties of apple, walnut, apricot, almond, pear, cherry, peach, nectarine, plum, olive, garlic and hybrid vegetables. 
  • High density orcharding of apple and almond.
  • Medium density orcharding in walnut and apricot
  • Canopy management systems (Espalier/Tall Spindle) in apple and peach
  • Intensive cultivation of saffron for enhancing yield and quality
  • Intercropping of saffron with almond
  • Rejuvenation of old senile apple and almond orchards.
  • Low-cost walnut propagation techniques under polyhouse conditions
  • Rainwater harvesting and moisture conservation techniques in almond and apple
  • Integrated management of saffron corm rot
  • Integrated management of chilli wilt
  • Optmimum diagnosis and prognosis of apple viruses
  • Off season and protected cultivation of vegetables.
  • Production practices for high value exotic vegetables.
  • Nursery techniques and quality planting material and seed production
  • Micropropagation for production of virus free clonal rootstocks in apple and cherry 
  • Technologies for processing and value addition in temperate fruits and vegetables. 

 

These technologies were transferred through demonstrations, trainings, field days, kisan melas, exhibitions, goshties, seminars, visits, TV programmes, radio programmes, publication like extension manuals and folders. Thirty five advance trainings and MTCs, 50 on-campus and 12 on-farm trainings were conducted. Seventeen Field days/ Kisan Melas/Goshties were organized. Forty nine extension manuals and folders in English/Hindi were published and distributed. In addition to these, awareness of the institute’s technologies was created through participation in exhibitions, radio programmes, TV programmes, stakeholders meetings, visits and industrial meets.

 

 

Phones
 F & AO : 01942305045
 Technical Officer(ARIS):09419761786
 In-charge Farm Srinagar: 7006316856
E-mail
 director.cith@icar.gov.in
Address
 Old Airport Rd, Rangreth, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 190007

ICAR-Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture

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