भा. कृ. अनु. प.- केन्द्रीय शीतोष्ण बागवानी संस्थान

ICAR- Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture

About Institute

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About Institute

               India has significant area under temperature region including states/UTs of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Ladakh and North Eastern states. Maximum area and production of temperate horticultural crops is in Jammu and Kashmir followed by Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand but there is lot of scope for promotion of temperature horticulture in other states as well. Temperate fruit crops represent a group, which is physiologically diverse from the sub-tropical and tropical fruit crops grown in other regions.  The North Western and Eastern Himalayan states with temperate climate have monopoly in production of temperate fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, medicinal and aromatic plants which have vital role in nutritional and economic security of the region. These crops serve as the backbone of region’s economy by supporting about 10-12 million people and generating revenue of about Rs. 13,000 crores annually. In 1960-61 the area under temperate fruits in the country was just 0.82 lakh hectares which increased to 6.5 lakh hectares and production increased from 3.0 lakh tonnes to 40.0 lakh tones. Among various crops apple and walnut are the major crops of temperate fruits covering about 75% of the total area and accounting for 65% of temperate fruit production, respectively while rest of the production comes from other fruits like peach, plum, almond, apricot, cherry etc. which have significance in regions economy. During 2018-19 apple crop covered an area of 301 thousand ha and 2327 thousand MT national production. Walnut being second important crop covering an area of 109 thousand ha with 300 thousand MT production at national level. Other important temperate crops include almond (area = 11,000 ha; production = 14, 000 MT), pear (area = 44, 000 ha; production = 318, 000 MT), peach (area =19, 000 ha; production = 114, 000 MT), plum (area = 23, 000 ha; production = 89, 000 MT, Strawberry (area = 1, 000 ha; production = 5000 MT) etc. No doubt, there has been manifold increase in area, production and productivity but as compared to average world productivity (8.80t/ha) our position is far behind (6.00 t/ha). Temperate fruit crops are contributing significantly to the economic development of the country. Area expansion having its limitations, the gap in production needs to be addressed by increased productivity. Factors limiting productivity should be identified and eliminated by appropriate means.

 In addition to introducing and evolving high yielding genotypes, cost effective technologies for harnessing their productive potential needs to be evolved because, increased profitability to the grower is a pre requisite in increasing productivity for the sustainability of production. Increasing the input use efficiency through need based application of inputs should be the strategy in reducing the cost of production. While evolving such technologies, safety of the workers, environment and consumer should be borne in mind.   

Keeping in view the importance of these crops with respect to involvement of major population in temperate region in their cultivation and their contribution towards national economy a separate Institution has been established under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research at Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. ICAR-central Institute of Temperate Horticulture, Srinagar with its two regional stations at Mukteshwar, (Uttarakhand) and Dirang, (Arunachal Pradesh) is playing a great role in designing and developing research programmes on crop improvement, production, protection and post-harvest management for achieving economic and nutritional security in the entire Himalayan region. Institute is mainly focussing on research and development in temperate fruits, nuts, vegetables, ornamentals, medicinal & aromatic plants and saffron.

The Central Institute for Temperate Horticulture (CITH) was established in 1994. Initially it started functioning from Lucknow, and shifted to Srinagar in 1997. Research activities started first at Mukteshwar regional Station because of social disturbances in Kashmir valley. Field trials could be initiated at CITH main institute only in 2000 AD.

 The mandated temperate horticultural crops are approximately 50 in number as detailed below:




Major fruits


Apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, almond, walnut, cherry, kiwifruit and olive 

Temperate Vegetables   


Cole crops, Bulb crops, Root crops, Leafy etc.

Temperate spices


Saffron & kala zeera

Temperate ornamentals


Tulip, Lilium, Alstroemeria, Iris, Gerbera etc.